To determine which class shall process a packet, the so-called 'classifier chain' is called each time a choice needs to be made. This chain consists of all filters attached to the classful qdisc that needs to decide.
To reiterate the tree, which is not a tree:
root 1: | _1:1_ / | \ / | \ / | \ 10: 11: 12: / \ / \ 10:1 10:2 12:1 12:2
When enqueueing a packet, at each branch the filter chain is consulted for a relevant instruction. A typical setup might be to have a filter in 1:1 that directs a packet to 12: and a filter on 12: that sends the packet to 12:2.
You might also attach this latter rule to 1:1, but you can make efficiency gains by having more specific tests lower in the chain.
You can't filter a packet 'upwards', by the way. Also, with HTB, you should attach all filters to the root!
And again - packets are only enqueued downwards! When they are dequeued, they go up again, where the interface lives. They do NOT fall off the end of the tree to the network adaptor!
As explained in the Classifier chapter, you can match on literally anything, using a very complicated syntax. To start, we will show how to do the obvious things, which luckily are quite easy.
Let's say we have a PRIO qdisc called '10:' which contains three classes, and we want to assign all traffic from and to port 22 to the highest priority band, the filters would be:
# tc filter add dev eth0 protocol ip parent 10: prio 1 u32 match \ ip dport 22 0xffff flowid 10:1 # tc filter add dev eth0 protocol ip parent 10: prio 1 u32 match \ ip sport 80 0xffff flowid 10:1 # tc filter add dev eth0 protocol ip parent 10: prio 2 flowid 10:2
What does this say? It says: attach to eth0, node 10: a priority 1 u32 filter that matches on IP destination port 22 *exactly* and send it to band 10:1. And it then repeats the same for source port 80. The last command says that anything unmatched so far should go to band 10:2, the next-highest priority.
You need to add 'eth0', or whatever your interface is called, because each interface has a unique namespace of handles.
To select on an IP address, use this:
# tc filter add dev eth0 parent 10:0 protocol ip prio 1 u32 \ match ip dst 22.214.171.124/32 flowid 10:1 # tc filter add dev eth0 parent 10:0 protocol ip prio 1 u32 \ match ip src 126.96.36.199/32 flowid 10:1 # tc filter add dev eth0 protocol ip parent 10: prio 2 \ flowid 10:2
This assigns traffic to 188.8.131.52 and traffic from 184.108.40.206 to the highest priority queue, and the rest to the next-highest one.
You can concatenate matches, to match on traffic from 220.127.116.11 and from port 80, do this:
# tc filter add dev eth0 parent 10:0 protocol ip prio 1 u32 match ip src 18.104.22.168/32 \ match ip sport 80 0xffff flowid 10:1
Most shaping commands presented here start with this preamble:
# tc filter add dev eth0 parent 1:0 protocol ip prio 1 u32 ..These are the so called 'u32' matches, which can match on ANY part of a packet.
Source mask 'match ip src 22.214.171.124/24', destination mask 'match ip dst 126.96.36.199/24'. To match a single host, use /32, or omit the mask.
Source: 'match ip sport 80 0xffff', destination: 'match ip dport 80 0xffff'
Use the numbers from /etc/protocols, for example, icmp is 1: 'match ip protocol 1 0xff'.
You can mark packets with either ipchains or iptables and have that mark survive routing across interfaces. This is really useful to for example only shape traffic on eth1 that came in on eth0. Syntax:
# tc filter add dev eth1 protocol ip parent 1:0 prio 1 handle 6 fw flowid 1:1Note that this is not a u32 match!
You can place a mark like this:
# iptables -A PREROUTING -t mangle -i eth0 -j MARK --set-mark 6The number 6 is arbitrary.
If you don't want to understand the full tc filter syntax, just use iptables, and only learn to select on fwmark. You can also have iptables print basic statistics that will help you debug your rules. The following command will show you all the rules that mark packages in the mangle table, also how many packages and bytes have matched.
# iptables -L -t mangle -n -v
To select interactive, minimum delay traffic:
# tc filter add dev ppp0 parent 1:0 protocol ip prio 10 u32 \ match ip tos 0x10 0xff \ flowid 1:4Use 0x08 0xff for bulk traffic.
For more filtering commands, see the Advanced Filters chapter.